## Indian literature - Wikipedia

The Murty Classical Library of India, published by Harvard University Press, makes available original texts and modern English translations of the masterpieces of literature and thought from across the whole spectrum of Indic languages over the past two millennia in the most authoritative and accessible formats on offer anywhere. The Murty Classical Library of India (MCLI) aims to make available the great literary works of India from the past two millennia in scholarly yet accessible English translations. In addition, the text in the appropriate regional script will be provided on the facing page. Aug 22, · Indian literature, writings of the Indian subcontinent, produced there in a variety of vernacular languages, including Sanskrit, Prakrit, The South Indian language of Tamil is an exception to this pattern of Sanskrit influence because it had a classical tradition of its own. Urdu and Sindhi are other exceptions.

## Ancient India at the time of the Buddha and rebirth of urban literate civilization

For a while, **classical indian literature**, considerable political consolidation and expansion **classical indian literature** place within the subcontinent and beyond its shores to Southeast Asiawhile direct contact with the West lessened after the heyday of trade with Rome. An increasing number of complete treatises on mathematical subjects survived from this period, beginning about the middle of the 1st millennium, in contrast to the scattered allusions and fragments of the ancient period.

Greek mathematical models in astronomy and astrology appeared in India following the invasion of Alexander the Great. *Classical indian literature* models were integrated with existing Indian material to produce an extremely fruitful system of Sanskrit mathematical astronomy and astrology, known as jyotisa. As a result, much of **classical indian literature** knowledge of classical Indian mathematics is supplied by astronomical texts.

Of course, there were many nonastronomical applications of ganita as well. Buddhists, Jains, and Hindus all valued mathematical astronomy for practical uses such as timekeeping, calendrics, and astrology and also ascribed to it intellectual and spiritual importance.

Among the earliest of these works that have been preserved are the foundational treatises of two major astronomical schools: the Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata c. **Classical indian literature** is known of these authors. Aryabhata lived in Kusumapura near modern Patna *classical indian literature,* and Brahmagupta is said to have been from Bhillamala modern Bhinmalwhich was the capital of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty.

Although members of different schools frequently criticized the astronomical parameters and techniques preferred by their rivals, their fundamental mathematical knowledge was largely the same. The oldest surviving detailed survey of that knowledge is the first section of the Aryabhatiyatitled Ganita. Brahmagupta collected his mathematical basics into two chapters of his treatise. Chapter 18 deals with indeterminate equations of the first and second degrees and with algebra techniques for linear and quadratic equations including rules for sign manipulation and the arithmetic of zero.

Trigonometric rules and tables are stated in astronomical chapters that employ them, and another chapter deals briefly with calculations relating to prosody. Both the Aryabhatiya and, apparently, an early text of the Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta school entered the Muslim world and were translated into Arabic near the end of the 8th century, *classical indian literature*, profoundly influencing the development of Islamic mathematical astronomy.

Almost all known Sanskrit mathematical texts consist mostly of concise formulas in verse. This was the standard format for many types of Sanskrit technical treatises, and the task of making sense out of its compressed formulas was aided in all its genres by prose commentaries.

Verse rules about mathematics, **classical indian literature**, like those in any other subject, were designed to be learned by heart, but that does not necessarily mean that nothing was expected of the student beyond rote memorization, **classical indian literature**. Frequently the rules were ambiguously expressed, apparently deliberately, so that only someone who understood the underlying mathematics would be able to apply them properly.

Commentaries helped by providing at least a word-by-word gloss of the meaning and usually some illustrative examples—and in some cases even detailed demonstrations, *classical indian literature*. Verse works on mathematics and astronomy faced the special challenge of verbally representing numbers which frequently occurred in tables, constants, and examples in strict metrical formats.

Another useful technique, developed somewhat later about cewas the so-called katapayadi system in which each of the 10 decimal digits was assigned to a set of consonants beginning with the letters ktpand ywhile vowels had no numerical significance. This meant that numbers could be represented not only by normal-sounding syllables but by actual Sanskrit words using appropriate consonants in the appropriate sequence.

In fact, some astronomers constructed entire numerical tables in the form of katapayadi sentences or poems. The original physical appearance of these mathematical writings is more mysterious than their verbal content, because the treatises survive only in copies dating from much later times and reflecting later scribal conventions. There is a striking exception, however, in the Bakhshali manuscript, found in by a farmer in his field in Bakhshali near modern Peshawar**classical indian literature**, Pakistan.

Written in a variant of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit on birch bark, most likely about the 7th century, this manuscript is the only known Indian document on mathematics from this early period; it shows what the mathematical notation of that time and place actually looked like, *classical indian literature*. Because there are so few surviving physical representatives of mathematical works dating from **classical indian literature** than the mid-2nd millennium, it is difficult to say when, where, and how some of these notational conventions changed.

In later texts the writing of equations was formalized so that both sides had the same number and kinds of terms with zero coefficients where necessary. The practice of writing a square cross after a negative number was generally replaced by *classical indian literature* of putting a dot over it. Indian mathematics. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback, *classical indian literature*. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. The role of astronomy and astrology Greek mathematical models in astronomy and astrology appeared in India following the invasion of Alexander the Great.

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### Murty Classical Library of India | Harvard University Press

Classical Indian Literature - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt /.pptx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. A review of Indian Literature during the Classical Era (the Golden Age of Literature). The Murty Classical Library of India (MCLI) aims to make available the great literary works of India from the past two millennia in scholarly yet accessible English translations. In addition, the text in the appropriate regional script will be provided on the facing page. Sanskrit literature refers to texts composed in Sanskrit language since the 2nd-millennium BCE. Many of the prominent texts are associated with Indian religions, i.e., Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and were composed in ancient hassnewsde.gqr, others were composed central, East or Southeast Asia and the canon includes works covering secular sciences and the arts.